Context of a Perl Subroutine

It is often useful to produce different return values depending on the context in which the subrouting or method was called, i.e. the type of return value that the caller expects:


Create an bibliography.

Bash Script Debugging

This is very useful for debugging:

Adding Functions during Runtime

The following code chunk demonstrates how to add functions to the current namespace during runtime:


This modules provides high resolution timers.


All blessed references inherit from UNIVERSAL:

Mean Value and Mean Deviation

The most commonly used analysis of a series of measurements $x_i = x_1, \dots, x_n$ is calculating the mean value, the minimum, and the maximum as well as the mean deviation:

Localized Names



List environments like itemize can be customized.

Itemize with small item spacing:

\item ITEM1
\item ITEM2

All available lengths

Length Description
\topsep Vertival space before and after list environment
\itemsep Vertical space between lines
\parsep Vertical space between paragraphs inside an item
\partopsep Vertical space before list environment if it starts a new paragraph

NOTE: You will not be able to modify topsep and partopsep inside a list environment because the space was already added at that point.

NOTE: The default values of these lengths depend on the depth of the list environment.

See Dense Lists for an example how to modify topsep and partopsep

Horizontal Rule

Include an horizontal rule in your text: